Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry by McMurry, Ballantine, Hoeger, and Peterson provides background in chemistry and biochemistry with a relatable context to ensure students of all disciplines gain an appreciation of chemistry’s significance in everyday life. Known for its clarity and concise presentation, this book balances chemical concepts with examples, drawn from students’ everyday lives and experiences, to explain the quantitative aspects of chemistry and provide deeper insight into theoretical principles. The Seventh Edition focuses on making connections between General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry through a number of new and updated features — including all-new Mastering Reactions boxes, Chemistry in Action boxes, new and revised chapter problems that strengthen the ties between major concepts in each chapter, practical applications, and much more.
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New To This Edition
Table of Contents1. Matter and Measurements1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science1.2 States of Matter1.3 Classification of Matter1.4 Chemical Elements and Symbols1.5 Elements and the Periodic Table1.6 Chemical Reaction: An Example of a Chemical Change1.7 Physical Quantities1.8 Measuring Mass, Length, and Volume1.9 Measurement and Significant Figures1.10 Scientific Notation1.11 Rounding Off Numbers1.12 Problem Solving: Unit Conversions and Estimating Answers1.13 Temperature, Heat, and Energy1.14 Density and Specific Gravity2. Atoms and the Periodic Table2.1 Atomic Theory2.2 Elements and Atomic Number2.3 Isotopes and Atomic Weight2.4 The Periodic Table2.5 Some Characteristics of Different Groups2.6 Electronic Structure of Atoms2.7 Electron Configurations2.8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table2.9 Electron-Dot Symbols3. Ionic Compounds3.1 Ions3.2 Periodic Properties and Ion Formation3.3 Ionic Bonds3.4 Some Properties of Ionic Compounds3.5 Ions and the Octet Rule3.6 Ions of Some Common Elements3.7 Naming Ions3.8 Polyatomic Ions3.9 Formulas of Ionic Compounds3.10 Naming Ionic Compounds3.11 H _ and OH _ Ions: An Introduction to Acids and Bases4. Molecular Compounds4.1 Covalent Bonds4.2 Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table4.3 Multiple Covalent Bonds4.4 Coordinate Covalent Bonds4.5 Characteristics of Molecular Compounds4.6 Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structures4.7 Drawing Lewis Structures4.8 The Shapes of Molecules4.9 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity4.10 Polar Molecules4.11 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds5. Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions5.1 Chemical Equations5.2 Balancing Chemical Equations5.3 Classes of Chemical Reactions5.4 Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines5.5 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions5.6 Redox Reactions5.7 Recognizing Redox Reactions5.8 Net Ionic Equations6. Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass Relationships6.1 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number6.2 Gram–Mole Conversions6.3 Mole Relationships and Chemical Equations6.4 Mass Relationships and Chemical Equations6.5 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield7. Chemical Reactions: Energy, Rates, and Equilibrium7.1 Energy and Chemical Bonds7.2 Heat Changes during Chemical Reactions7.3 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions7.4 Why Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Free Energy7.5 How Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Reaction Rates7.6 Effects of Temperature, Concentration, and Catalysts on Reaction Rates7.7 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium7.8 Equilibrium Equations and Equilibrium Constants7.9 Le Châtelier’s Principle: The Effect of Changing Conditions on Equilibria8. Gases, Liquids, and Solids8.1 States of Matter and Their Changes8.2 Intermolecular Forces8.3 Gases and the Kinetic–Molecular Theory8.4 Pressure8.5 Boyle’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Pressure8.6 Charles’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Temperature8.7 Gay-Lussac’s Law: The Relation between Pressure and Temperature8.8 The Combined Gas Law8.9 Avogadro’s Law: The Relation between Volume and Molar Amount8.10 The Ideal Gas Law8.11 Partial Pressure and Dalton’s Law8.12 Liquids8.13 Water: A Unique Liquid8.14 Solids8.15 Changes of State9. Solutions9.1 Mixtures and Solutions9.2 The Solution Process9.3 Solid Hydrates9.4 Solubility9.5 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility9.6 The Effect of Pressure on Solubility: Henry’s Law9.7 Units of Concentration9.8 Dilution9.9 Ions in Solution: Electrolytes9.10 Electrolytes in Body Fluids: Equivalents and Milliequivalents9.11 Properties of Solutions9.12 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure9.13 Dialysis10. Acids and Bases10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution10.2 Some Common Acids and Bases10.3 The Brønsted–Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases10.4 Acid and Base Strength10.5 Acid Dissociation Constants10.6 Water as Both an Acid and a Base10.7 Measuring Acidity in Aqueous Solution: pH10.8 Working with pH10.9 Laboratory Determination of Acidity10.10 Buffer Solutions10.11 Acid and Base Equivalents10.12 Some Common Acid–Base Reactions10.13 Titration10.14 Acidity and Basicity of Salt Solutions11. Nuclear Chemistry11.1 Nuclear Reactions11.2 The Discovery and Nature of Radioactivity11.3 Stable and Unstable Isotopes11.4 Nuclear Decay11.5 Radioactive Half-Life11.6 Radioactive Decay Series11.7 Ionizing Radiation11.8 Detecting Radiation11.9 Measuring Radiation11.10 Artificial Transmutation11.11 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion12. Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes12.1 The Nature of Organic Molecules12.2 Families of Organic Molecules: Functional Groups12.3 The Structure of Organic Molecules: Alkanes and Their Isomers12.4 Drawing Organic Structures12.5 The Shapes of Organic Molecules12.6 Naming Alkanes12.7 Properties of Alkanes12.8 Reactions of Alkanes12.9 Cycloalkanes12.10 Drawing and Naming Cycloalkanes13. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes13.2 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes13.3 The Structure of Alkenes: Cis–Trans Isomerism13.4 Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes13.5 Types of Organic Reactions13.6 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes13.7 Alkene Polymers13.8 Aromatic Compounds and the Structure of Benzene13.9 Naming Aromatic Compounds13.10 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds14. Some Compounds with Oxygen, Sulfur, or a Halogen14.1. Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers14.2. Some Common Alcohols14.3. Naming Alcohols14.4. Properties of Alcohols14.5. Reactions of Alcohols14.6. Phenols14.7. Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols14.8. Ethers14.9. Thiols and Disulfides14.10. Halogen-Containing Compounds15. Amines15.1. Amines15.2. Properties of Amines15.3. Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds15.4. Basicity of Amines15.5. Amine Salts15.6. Amines in Plants: Alkaloids16. Aldehydes and Ketones16.1. The Carbonyl Group16.2. Naming Aldehydes and Ketones16.3. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones16.4. Some Common Aldehydes and Ketones16.5. Oxidation of Aldehydes16.6. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones16.7. Addition of Alcohols: Hemiacetals and Acetals17. Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives17.1. Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: Properties and Names17.2. Some Common Carboxylic Acids17.3. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids17.4. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: Ester and Amide Formation17.5. Aspirin and Other Over-the-Counter Carboxylic Acid 17.6. Hydrolysis of Esters and Amides17.7. Polyamides and Polyesters17.8. Phosphoric Acid Derivatives18. Amino Acids and Proteins18.1 An Introduction to Biochemistry18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview18.3 Amino Acids18.4 Acid–Base Properties of Amino Acids18.5 Handedness18.6 Molecular Handedness and Amino Acids18.7 Primary Protein Structure18.8 Shape-Determining Interactions in Proteins18.9 Secondary Protein Structure18.10 Tertiary Protein Structure18.11 Quaternary Protein Structure18.12 Chemical Properties of Proteins19. Enzymes and Vitamins19.1 Catalysis by Enzymes19.2 Enzyme Cofactors19.3 Enzyme Classification19.4 How Enzymes Work19.5 Effect of Concentration on Enzyme Activity19.6 Effect of Temperature and pH on Enzyme Activity19.7 Enzyme Regulation: Feedback and Allosteric Control19.8 Enzyme Regulation: Inhibition19.9 Enzyme Regulation: Covalent Modification and Genetic Control19.10 Vitamins and Minerals20. The Generation of Biochemical Energy20.1. Energy and Life20.2. Energy and Biochemical Reactions20.3. Cells and Their Structure20.4. An Overview of Metabolism and Energy Production20.5. Strategies of Metabolism: ATP and Energy Transfer20.6. Strategies of Metabolism: Metabolic Pathways and Coupled Reactions20.7. Strategies of Metabolism: Oxidized and Reduced Coenzymes20.8. The Citric Acid Cycle20.9. The Electron-Transport Chain and ATP Production20.10. Harmful Oxygen By-Products and Antioxidant Vitamins21. Carbohydrates21.1 An Introduction to Carbohydrates21.2. Handedness of Carbohydrates21.3. The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules21.4. Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides21.5. Some Important Monosaccharides21.6. Reactions of Monosaccharides21.7. Disaccharides21.8. Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme21.9. Some Important Polysaccharides22. Carbohydrate Metabolism22.1. Digestion of Carbohydrates22.2. Glucose Metabolism: An Overview22.3. Glycolysis22.4. Entry of Other Sugars into Glycolysis22.5. The Fate of Pyruvate22.6. Energy Output in Complete Catabolism of Glucose22.7. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Energy Production22.8. Metabolism in Fasting and Starvation22.9. Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus22.10. Glycogen Metabolism: Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis22.11. Gluconeogenesis: Glucose from Noncarbohydrates23. Lipids23.1. Structure and Classification of Lipids23.2. Fatty Acids and Their Esters23.3. Properties of Fats and Oils23.4. Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols23.5. Phospholipids and Glycolipids23.6. Sterols 23.7. Structure of Cell Membranes23.8. Transport Across Cell Membranes23.9. Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes24. Lipid Metabolism24.1 Digestion of Triacylglycerols24.2. Lipoproteins for Lipid Transport24.3. Triacylglycerol Metabolism: An Overview24.4. Storage and Mobilization of Triacylglycerols24.5. Oxidation of Fatty Acids24.6. Energy from Fatty Acid Oxidation24.7. Ketone Bodies and Ketoacidosis24.8. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids25. Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis25.1. DNA, Chromosomes, and Genes25.2. Composition of Nucleic Acids25.3. The Structure of Nucleic Acid Chains25.4. Base Pairing in DNA: The Watson–Crick Model25.5. Nucleic Acids and Heredity25.6. Replication of DNA25.7. Structure and Function of RNA25.8. Transcription: RNA Synthesis25.9. The Genetic Code25.10. Translation: Transfer RNA and Protein Synthesis26. Genomics26.1. Mapping the Human Genome26.2. A Trip Along a Chromosome26.3. Mutations and Polymorphisms26.4. Recombinant DNA26.5. Genomics: Using What We Know27. Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism27.1. Digestion of Proteins27.2. Amino Acid Metabolism: An Overview27.3. Amino Acid Catabolism: The Amino Group27.4. The Urea Cycle27.5. Amino Acid Catabolism: The Carbon Atoms27.6. Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids28. Chemical Messengers: Hormones, Neurotransmitters, and Drugs28.1. Messenger Molecules28.2. Hormones and the Endocrine System28.3. How Hormones Work: Epinephrine and Fight-or-Flight28.4. Amino Acid Derivatives and Polypeptides as Hormones28.5. Steroid Hormones28.6. Neurotransmitters28.7. How Neurotransmitters Work: Acetylcholine, Its Agonists and Antagonists28.8. Histamine and Antihistamines28.9. Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine28.10. Neuropeptides and Pain Relief28.11. Drug Discovery and Drug Design29. Body Fluids29.1 Body Water and Its Solutes29.2. Fluid Balance29.3. Blood29.4. Plasma Proteins, White Blood Cells, and Immunity29.5. Blood Clotting29.6. Red Blood Cells and Blood Gases29.7. The Kidney and Urine Formation29.8. Urine Composition and Function